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What is Information Security? or Information Security Definition

Information Security is (Also Referred to as Info-Sec)  a Methods or processes to protection of any kind of data or information which can be misused, modify, disrupt or destroy by unauthorized Access.


Information Security : Introduction, Principle and Defence
Information Security: Introduction, Principle, and Defence

    In this article, I will be discussing our first topic in our series of lessons on information privacy and security before I get into the primary content  I wanted to pose an interesting philosophical question namely,

     Why is an information security management is Important or Need for information security?

     although many of the investments that are made into information privacy and security are not related to malicious attacks there is nevertheless an extraordinarily large amount of investment in information privacy and security mechanisms that are targeted toward protecting systems against attacks by malicious parties.

     From a philosophical perspective, it's important to consider what this says about humanity on the one hand it shows that we are certainly curious creatures but on the other hand, it shows that we as a species are not particularly trustworthy and we're also greedy there are many people organizations and even governments in the world that would be very happy to steal personal private information from you or your organization for their own gain.

     This appears to be a natural trait of human beings in virtually all cultures and I think it's important to note that if we were not like this as a species the quantity of time money and other resources that individuals organizations and governments must invest into protecting their information assets would be much less than it is today.

    Information Privacy And Security

     With those philosophical thoughts in mind let's begin with how dependent are you upon information and communication technology well if you're like most people in the developed world your day-to-day activities are increasingly characterized by interactions with technology.

     Computational capabilities are being embedded in a rapidly increasing number and variety of products anything from athletic shoes to kitchen appliances to implantable medical devices and what this means is that with every passing day computers are controlling and administering and making decisions about more and more aspects of our daily lives.

     What we can conclude from this situation is that we are becoming more and more dependent on these information and communication technologies every single day and this situation has very important implications with respect to our privacy and security.

    Dependence on Information Technology and Risk

     To better understand why to consider the relationship between our dependence on technology and risk because we live in a world where we are increasingly entrusting our lives and our livelihoods to computer technologies and because those technologies are not entirely dependable safe or secure our increasing reliance upon these information and communication technologies brings with it plenty of new risks that were not present prior to the rise of the Information Age.

     As a discipline and as a profession then one of the major goals of information security is to find ways of mitigating these risks that is to allow us to have our cake and eat it too.

    How Information Technology Fails?

     Although many people think of the world of information privacy and security as one characterized by hackers, cyber terrorists, or government-sponsored information espionage in reality the scope of information privacy and security is much broader and one way of understanding the breadth of this scope is to consider information security from the perspective of IT failures.

     Our modern information technologies can fail for many different reasons first consider

     Physical failures - these are hardware devices and hardware can and does fail even in the modern era many of our computational technologies still rely on moving parts and a failure of any of these moving parts can cascade to cause a wider failure of the information technology as a whole further electronic component can fail and when these components fail permanently the cause of the problem is much easier to diagnose than when they fail intermittently it is therefore important for managers and system administrators not only to expect that their physical IT devices will fail but also to develop plans for how to address those failures when they inevitably occur.

     Beyond physical failures, we have other types of information technology failures as well and these can best be understood by considering the intersection of two different dimensions along one dimension we have a spectrum which ranges from malicious to non-malicious that is the source of the failure is caused by someone intentionally or unintentionally and along the other dimension, we have a spectrum which ranges from harmless to catastrophic plotting these two dimensions against each other provides us with a geometric space in which we can easily classify our non-physical information technology failures.

    Information Technology Fails


     A failure then might be non-malicious and harmless it might be non-malicious but catastrophic it might be malicious but cause no harm or in the worst scenario it may be a malicious attack that causes catastrophic damage to our information assets again remember that information security has a broad scope and information security addresses each of these different types of failures what's more information security addresses failures that have never before been seen or do not currently exist and that statement speaks to the dynamism and constant change that characterizes the world of information security.

    Scope of Information Security

     So when thinking about information security remember that it has a vast scope we're talking here about protecting anything from tiny little integrated circuits all the way up to massive clusters of servers that may involve thousands of unique machines.

     It's about protecting a local private network that you may have in your home or your apartment all the way up to massive wide area networks or even the entire internet.

     About protecting hardware software operating systems databases networks etc the scope of inquiry in computer security is vast continuously changing and ever-growing.

     Broadly speaking however we can think about computer security as being concerned with protecting information assets.

    What Should we protect in Information Security?

     When we say information assets what we're referring to are elements of the information system that have value since value lies at the core of where we should focus our information security efforts a critical first step is identifying what within our organization has value and to whom do those items have value one good way of thinking about information technology assets is to subdivide assets into three categories.

     first, we have 

    Hardware assets and these can in our computing systems mobile devices networks and communications channels 

    next, we have software assets these can include operating systems off-the-shelf application programs mobile apps as well as custom or customized application programs 

    and finally, we have data assets these are our files our databases the information that we generate in our daily lives or in carrying out our business, and as we will see it is often this class of assets that has the greatest value of all.


    information technology assets
    Information Technology Assets

     when considering this diagram remember that the perceived value of an asset depends in part upon the ease with which that asset can be replaced certain components of an information system such as Hardware mobile devices operating systems off-the-shelf software can be easily replaced by contrast custom applications or mobile apps and our data are often unique and irreplaceable.

     Perhaps you can think of an example in your own life where you or someone you've known has lost say a laptop computer or a mobile device many times they are upset not so much about the loss of the physical device the physical Hardware itself but more so about the photos the course documents the data that they had for work etc.

     It is those files those data items that represent much of the value of the system to its users and we can understand intuitively through examples such as this why the value of an asset often depends upon the ease with which we are able to replace that asset.

    Vulnerability - Threat - Control Framework

     Earlier in our discussion, we said that one of the major goals of information security was to mitigate security risks another major goal of information security as a discipline and as a profession is to try to protect our valuable information assets and in order to approach the study of methods of protecting these assets we will adopt what's known as a vulnerability-threat-control framework.

     To begin consider a vulnerability this is a weakness in some aspect of an information system if a vulnerability is exploited it has the potential to cause loss or harm and a human being who intentionally exploits a vulnerability is perpetrating an attack on the system so an attack then can be defined as intentional exploitation of a system vulnerability.

     Next, we can consider a threat now a threat is simply a set of circumstances that has the potential to cause loss or harm and as we will see shortly threats and vulnerabilities are very closely related 

    finally, we have controls and the control is something that we do or something that we have which helps to eliminate or reduce a vulnerability another name for control is a countermeasure.

     Now many people when they are first learning about information security become confused about the difference between a threat a vulnerability and control so let me provide you with a simple example that I hope will help you to remember the difference between these three concepts

     Imagine that you are walking over a bridge whenever you walk over a bridge there is always a certain threat to your safety namely that the bridge might collapse under so the possibility of the bridge collapsing is a threat to your safety now if there is a weakness in the bridge say that there is a crack in the cement or the mortar between the blocks of stone from which the bridge is constructed has begun to crumble or deteriorate those weaknesses are vulnerabilities and if those vulnerabilities were to be exploited the threat of the bridge collapsing would be actualized and that might actually cause you physical harm a control then is something that we do or something that we have which helps us to eliminate or reduce a vulnerability in this example we might apply bracing to reinforce the bridge or we may try to repair the cracks in the concrete thus reducing the possibility that the vulnerability will be exploited.

      Threats are blocked or prevented from being actualized by controlling vulnerabilities next I'd like to talk about threats and what has come to be known as C-I-A that is confidentiality integrity and availability.

    Information Security Principles 

     This acronym C-I-A and the concepts for which it stands is commonly referred to as the security triad and we can think about threats as interfering with the confidentiality, integrity, or availability of an information system.

     Confidentiality then is simply the ability of a system to ensure that assets are viewable or accessible only by authorized parties.

     Integrity by contrast is the ability of a system to ensure that assets are modifiable or changeable only by authorized parties .

    and finally availability refers to the ability of a system to ensure that assets are usable by and accessible to all authorized parties.

     confidentiality integrity and availability can also be seen as goals or objectives of information security since together they represent three very desirable properties of an information system.

     The CIA principle has been around for many decades more recently other desirable system properties have also been identified and these are authentication, non-repudiation, and auditability 

    with respect to the first two of these that is authentication and non-repudiation we are speaking here of systems that allow for communication or messaging with other systems or other users and in this regard authentication refers to the ability of a system to confirm the identity of a sender for example if you receive a message from your manager which instructs you to immediately stop working on the project that you have been working on for the past year and turn your attention to another project you as the receiver of that message would like to be able to confirm the identity of the sender that is you would like to know that it truly was your boss who sent that message to you 

    on the other side of this is non-repudiation and this is a property of a system in which a sender cannot convincingly deny having sent a message returning to our previous example if you received such a message from your manager instructing you to immediately discontinue working on a project and if we assume that your manager genuinely did send that message a desirable property of the system from your perspective would be to ensure that your manager could not deny having sent that message.

     finally, we have auditability as a desirable system property and this is simply the ability of a system to trace all actions that are related to a given asset that way if something goes wrong in the future we can trace back through time and determine who did what and when in order to ensure that responsible parties are held to account.

     How harm can be caused to an information system

     harmful acts and harm can be caused to an information system in four general ways 


    through interception for example I might intercept valuable information flowing over a network.


     interruption for example I might disrupt the information system's ability to carry out its tasks.


     modification in which I might seek to modify an information system or modify its information assets without being properly authorized to do so


     and fabrication in which I might fabricate an identity or I might fabricate new information assets for the purpose of doing harm to the system as a whole.

     Each of these four acts is a harmful act because it can affect a system's ability to ensure confidentiality integrity or availability next I would like to discuss some additional details about confidentiality integrity and availability.


     Beginning first with confidentiality when it comes to confidentiality a good information security strategy is to adopt the need-to-know basis for determining who has access to data and when they have access to those data essentially.

     The idea here is that by default the user of a system should not have access to anything and the information assets or capabilities that they are given with respect to the system are done so only on a need-to-know basis that is we should provide system users and information workers with all of the information assets that they need to do their jobs effectively and nothing more another interesting consideration.

    with respect to confidentiality is the question of how do we know if a user is a person or the system that they claim to be and this question speaks directly to the difference between identification and authentication we can think of identification as the process of proving that someone is who they say they are by contrast we can think of authentication as the process of proving that something is genuine or true or authentic in the world of information security.

     it is often very difficult or infeasible to truly identify a real human being or a specific system instead we commonly use methods of authentication rather than identification and we assume that the credentials being used for authentication are being used only by the real world human being or system to whom those credentials apply.

     This is of course a risky assumption since through malicious or non-malicious means it might be very possible for me to obtain your login information and your password and if I were then to use that information to log in to say your social networking account as far as the social networking site is concerned I am by providing your credentials the system is assuming that I am the real-world human being to whom those credentials belong.

     Similar to the need-to-know policy for data access to physical assets such as the server room or the network closet should also be granted only on a need-to-know basis.

     Confidentiality then is difficult to ensure with 100% certainty but it is often the easiest to assess in terms of whether or not our efforts at confidentiality have been successful.


     When thinking about the difference between confidentiality and integrity just remember that confidentiality is concerned with access to information assets whereas integrity is concerned with preventing unauthorized modification of assets.

     Integrity of course is more difficult to measure than confidentiality because it is context-dependent it means different things in different situations and what's more there are degrees of integrity for these reasons it's necessary for each organization to establish its own criteria by which integrity can be measured and evaluated as with integrity availability is also context-dependent.


     it a very complex issue put another way availability means different things to different people.

     To a CEO for example availability might mean can I access my corporate email from home while to a data analyst availability might mean can I carry out my analyses in a timely manner without having to wait an unacceptably long period of time in order for the system to process.

     my request as the general set of guidelines then we might consider an asset to be available when there is a timely request-response fair allocation of resources fault tolerance built into the system ease-of-use and a good concurrency control strategy in place in order to address situations in which multiple users are attempting to use the same asset at the same time.

    Threats in Information Security
    Threats in Information Security

     to summarize our discussion of threats then consider that threats can be caused by some natural event such as a fire, a power failure, an earthquake, a mudslide, a tornado, a sinkhole, a hurricane, etc.

     or by human causes that is the threat is caused by something that a human being has done in the case of a human-caused threat the intention of the human might be benign or it might be malicious as examples of benign or non-malicious intent we can consider a situation in which harm is caused through a simple human error or perhaps someone trips over a power cord or accidentally deletes an important file these are all examples of harm that is actualized through a benign or non-malicious intent.

     when there is malicious intent however that is when a human being is intending to cause harm we can then classify that malicious intent as either random or directed and the difference between random or directed malicious attacks is simply whether the attacker is targeting a specific organization individual or entity if a specific target is under intentional attack then we can classify that as a directed malicious attack otherwise if an attacker engages in a malicious attack and they do so without the intention of harming a specific organization entity or individual then we can classify that as a random malicious attack.

    Types of Attackers in Information Security

    Amateurs - Who then are these attackers who seek to compromise the confidentiality integrity or availability of our information systems well surprisingly many attackers are simple amateurs they act opportunistically for example perhaps they find someone's lost mobile device or laptop computer and they decide to look through the files on that computer or perhaps they are script kiddies or wannabe hackers who find hacking tools on some website that they apply to their home computers or the computers at their school or place of work.

    Hackers - outside of amateurs we also have hackers and crackers with the difference here being that hackers generally are attackers who have a non-malicious intent they like to break into systems and look around or break into a system just to prove that they can do it 

    Crackers - cracker, by contrast, has a malicious intent they're breaking into a system with the goal of causing harm stealing data disrupting the confidentiality availability or integrity of the system among these crackers.

     Career Criminals -  career criminals organized crime syndicates who seek to engage in malicious breaches of information security for the purpose of financial 

    Cyber Terrorists -  more recently we've seen the rise of cyber terrorists who are not necessarily affiliated with a particular state or government but nevertheless are conducting attacks on information systems in support of some ideological or political agenda.

    Supported information Experts - and of course we have state-supported information warriors and spies most modern countries including powerful countries like the United States and China employ vast armies of information warriors whose job it is to try to spy on the government's or military organizations of other countries and collect intelligence through digital means what's more this is no longer just a minor consideration in the United States, for example, the Department of Defense now considers cyberspace to be the fifth battlefield the first for being land sea air and space and now cyberspace is considered the fifth battlefield and a substantial amount of the nation's defense assets are being invested in efforts aimed at ensuring the nation's information superiority in cyberspace.

    What Harm Attackers can cause to Information Security?

      Harm refers to the negative consequences that can arise from an actualized threat that is if a vulnerability in a system were to be exploited such that a threat became a reality what would be the implications of that actualized threat this is a very difficult question to answer because the quantity or the amount of harm that is sustained from a successful attack is often a subjective matter.

    Different people and different organizations will assign different values to their information technology assets and with different values assigned to the same assets, an identical attack would be perceived as causing a different amount of harm to two different organizations what's more the value of many information assets can change over time.

     Consider for example the value of the transactions that your bank maintains for your checking account if a malicious attack were launched against your bank and the attackers were able to successfully delete or modify the transactions for your checking account that took place in the last few days then we would almost certainly consider that act to have caused more harm more damage than if the same attackers had modified transaction data for your account where the transactions were 8 or 10 years old.

     this situation speaks to the relationship between the value of information and time most modern information scientists believe that the value of an information asset degrades over time according to an exponential decay function and this simply means that as a general rule on average newer data is usually more valuable than older data in order for an attack.

    How Attackers work to gain access to Information (Method  - Opportunity - Motive)

     to succeed an attacker needs method, opportunity, and motive and you can remember these by the acronym MOM.

       The Method here refers to the skill the knowledge the tools and so forth which are necessary in order for an attack to be attempted.

     Opportunity refers to the time and the necessary access that is required in order for an attack to be attempted.

     Motive is simply a reason to attempt an attack from an information security perspective.

     If any of these three items is eliminated that is if we're able to eliminate method or opportunity or motive the attack will not succeed therefore efforts aimed at defending against attacks on information infrastructure can target one or more of these three items method opportunity or motive.

    Methods of Defense against Attacks

     Speaking more specifically we have six approaches that we can use to defend our information systems.

    1.Prevent Attacks -

     the first of these approaches is prevention and this is accomplished by blocking an attack or by entirely closing or eliminating a vulnerability remember that attack occurs when a human being intentionally exploits a vulnerability if we are therefore able to close or entirely eliminate that vulnerability the attack cannot occur.

    2.Deter Attack -

    our second method of defense is to deter an attack and deterrence involves a strategy in which we attempt to make the attack more difficult to accomplish.

    3.Deflect Attack -

     Our third method is to deflect an attack and deflection involves providing another target for the attacker which seems to be more attractive than the original target in this way the attacker will pursue a target that is less valuable to us.

    4.Mitigate Attack -

     fourth we can mitigate an attack that is we can take steps to make the impact of an attack less severe if we are unable to prevent deter or deflect an attack our best strategy is to have mechanisms in place which will contain the damage.

    5.Detect Attack -

     our fifth method of defense is the detection and this can refer to detecting an attack while it is in progress or after it has taken place if we're able to detect an attack while it is underway we may be able to stop it but it is also important to realize that detecting an attack after it has taken place also has great value if we're able to detect an attack after it has taken place we may be able to repair and what's more we may be able to learn from the attack that is how is our system compromised and we can then use that information to hopefully close a vulnerability thus preventing a similar attack in the future.

    6.Recovery From Attack -

     and finally, our sixth method of defense is to recover from an attack we need to have mechanisms in place such as backup copies of data organizational protocols, etc that allow us to quickly recover from a successful attack if an attacker finds that the effects of their attack are quickly fixed then they are less likely to attack us in the future.

    A multi-layered approach to Implementing Controls or Security Measures

    next, I'd like to talk about the multi-layered approach to implementing controls or countermeasures for information security purposes consider a castle in the Middle Ages castles were often built in locations that leveraged natural obstacles in order to protect the castle during an attack an example might be building the castle on the edge of a cliff such that the side parallels with the cliff is much less likely to be attacked once more castles often had a surrounding moat that is a man-made band of water surrounding the castle which would help to further protect it from attackers additional controls included a drawbridge heavy walls with crenelations at the top strong gates towers guards who use swords together then we can see that the defensive strategy for these castles in the Middle Ages was built around a multi-layered defense.

     A similar strategy is used in information security today we use controls such as encryption software controls Hardware controls societal and organizational policies and procedures physical controls etc in order to establish a multi-layered defense for our information systems.

     Physical controls are those controls that seek to prevent an attack through the use of something tangible examples might include walls locks security guards security cameras backup copies a real-time replication of data or the implementation of natural or man-made disaster protection mechanisms such as smoke alarms and fire extinguishers.

     we also have procedural and administrative controls and these are controls that use commands or agreements that require or advise people to act in certain ways with the goal of protecting our information assets so procedural or administrative controls might include things such as laws and local regulations, organizational policies procedures or guidelines methods of protecting intellectual property such as copyrights, patents or trade secrets and the use of contracts or regulations which govern the relationships between two or more parties.

     and finally, we have technical controls and technical controls our controls or countermeasures that rely upon technology in order to help prevent an attack these can include mechanisms such as passwords access controls for operating systems or application software programs network protocols firewalls and intrusion detection systems encryption technology network traffic flow regulators, etc.

     when used together the adoption of these different types of controls allows us to establish a layered defense and gives us the best chance possible of preventing harm to our information systems put another way by defining and defending the perimeter of our system prepare and deterring attacks providing for the deflection of attacks and then constantly monitoring for intruders and learning from their attacks we can create an information security strategy which supports the confidentiality integrity and availability of the system while simultaneously mitigating many of the risks which are inherent in a world that relies so heavily on information and communication technologies.

    layered defense strategy
    Multi-layered defense strategy

     remember a layered defense strategy is best and this diagram illustrates this philosophy many different attempts might be made at breaking into our system and we have many tools and techniques available in order to limit the number of successful attacks outside of the boundaries of our system we can use preemption or external deterrence methods in order to prevent attacks and for those intrusion attempts that make it through our system perimeter we then have internal deterrence mechanisms deflection mechanisms and if all else fails and the attack is successful we want to be able to detect the attack and respond to and learn from it as quickly as possible thus limiting the likelihood that a similar attack would succeed in the future.

     so we'll multi-layered security strategy gives us the best chance possible of providing a solid defense against attacks in light of the competing objectives of confidentiality integrity and system availability while my friends thus end our introduction to computer security I hope that you learn something interesting in this lesson and until next time have a great day.

    All about hacking and cyber security I present ways of hacking over all platforms also trending news & info bugbounty tutorial for penetration testers

    What is Zero Day Exploit Meaning or Definition?

     A zero-day attack refers to a hole in software that is unknown to the vendor the security hole is then exploited by hackers before the vendor becomes aware and hurries to fix it and the exploit is called a zero-day Exploit.


    What is Zero Day Attack, Exploit and Vulnerability

    You have taken great care to secure your network but even with responsible and sustained investments in your defenses you're still at risk attackers can bypass your security through an uncharted software vulnerability a loophole revealed only by the persistent probing of a determined hacker this is how a network is breached this is how valuable data is stolen this is zero day and the exploit used for this is Zero day Exploit.

    zero day is a software vulnerability that is previously unknown and unpatched and therefore can be exploited by a threat actor to gain entry to a target network.

    Zero day Exploit meaning in simple term

    Think of a zero day as an unlocked house that the owner thinks is locked but a thief discovers is unlocked the thief can break in undetected and steal things from the house that may not be noticed until days later when the damage is already done and the thief is long gone without leaving traces as he only knows how he found that technique.

    (I think you all got it now... :))

    Now Let me take you to Journey of Zero day Exploit...


    How Zero Day Exploits get created and reach to its Destination.

    A hacker finds a zero day through hours, weeks, or months of painstaking effort he scours through lines of code probing applications and operating systems to find some weakness, some flaw.

     Hacker methodically barrages the target application with an array of reverse engineering tools and techniques forcing the software to reveal a small crack in the defenses that provides them a way to secretly execute code.

     with this vulnerability, in hand the hacker has a choice to help the software vendor by providing them information about the vulnerability (Ethical Hacking or Bug Bounty) or sell it to a broker a black-market vendor of zero-day exploits.

     The broker compiles an inventory of zero days to build his reputation on the darknet with one goal selling his exploits at the highest price.

     the broker lists these zero days on secret forums he acts as a matchmaker between exploit and attacker.

     the attacker needs an exploit that augments their existing tools and techniques, use reconnaissance data to select the zero day exploit that is most likely to compromise their target because zero day exploits are previously unknown they provide an element of surprise the attacker incorporates the zero day exploit into their customized attack and once the perfect storm program process and payload is concocted the attack is launched in a network.

    Effects of Zero Day Exploits and Vulnerabilities


    Effects of Zero Day Exploits and Vulnerabilities

    Zero day exploit attacks are the most disastrous when it comes to hacking attacks found because it also depends on the vendor or software engineers to write a fix in a timely manner and the world to implement those patches the term apparently originated in the days of digital building boards.

     When it referred to the number of days since a new software program had been released to the public in information security terms day zero is the day on which the interested party presumably the vendor of the targeted system learns of the vulnerability leading to the vulnerability being called a zero day.

     Fewer the days since day zero the higher the chances no fix or mitigation has been developed even after a fix is developed the fewer the days since day zero the higher is the probability that an attack against that afflicted software will be successful because not every user of that software will have applied effects for zero-day exploits unless the vulnerability is inadvertently fixed.


     For example by an unrelated update that happens to also obviate the need for a fix specific to the vulnerability the probability that a user has applied a vendor-supplied patch that fixes the problem is less so the exploit will remain available.


     Zero day attacks are a severe threat although they sound the same they are different zero day vulnerability is when software has a flaw known to the developer but the developer does not yet have a patch ready to be released and the rest of the world to apply it in a timely manner.

     A zero day exploit is packaged as malware which can create damage and are often highly successful until they become widely known and either the software is patched or other security measures are put into place to successfully identify and block the exploit or often get ignored by a lot of vendors which results in a huge breach.


    Zero Day Exploit Examples

     So basically zero day attacks are often found in secrecy it exists in published programming code of any form of service that is online that has not been reviewed from an offensive perspective it exists in many vendors hardware manufacturer as we have seen in the past with companies like Cisco, Microsoft, VPN services(NordVPN), collaborative applications(Slack) content management systems (WordPress) has been found through history within hardware software and has affected the top vendors and companies across the world.

    But the most known zero day exploit example I want to share in detail is Stuxnet.


    Stuxnet is specially designed to Exploit PLC (Programmable Logic Controllers) released back in 2008 but found in 2010.

     Stuxnet reportedly compromised Iranian PLCs, collecting information on industrial systems and damaging infrastructure. According to a November 2013 report from, Stuxnet was responsible for destroying one-fifth of Iran’s nuclear centrifuges by causing them to spin out of control.

     The worm exploits four, zero-day flaws that are present in some SCADA systems. In the case of Stuxnet, the worm targets systems using the Microsoft Windows operating system and networks, then it begins searching for Siemens Step7 software. If it is able to find the proper vulnerabilities in a given system, then it carries out its exploits.(Clever huh...)

     Stuxnet is typically introduced into a system via an infected USB flash drive and then propagates throughout the network.


     However, with the growing attachment to networked infrastructure and the “internet of things,” there are more access points for individuals who are interested in gaining control of SCADA systems by using worms and viruses like Stuxnet.

     A good mission-critical operator should be able to run security maintenance and apply best practices to make sure SCADA systems are not compromised.

    Prevention of Zero day Attacks, Exploits, and Vulnerability

     to prevent such attacks mitigating the risks you need to be faster and one step ahead having more red team-oriented employees simulating such tests a team that would purposely invest their knowledge and time from the offensive side to find them before attackers do and if such team cannot exist outsourcing such services externally will put you in a position to act in a time frame that would minimize the impact or prevent it ahead.

      companies should look into more data analysts of their equipment and software used to prevent such attacks they would look into access control reports heuristics analysis reports market for zero-day exploits software-defined protection solutions they should look into more Linux-oriented people with offensive security backgrounds.


    Requesting more penetration testing services, code reviewing, hiring more security researchers to work along with the other side focusing on such tasks with more IoT devices on the rise 7G around the corner connecting remotely to the cloud using VPN services work from home introduced which will change the ecosystem more devices more software will exist especially when it deals with robotics space and medical equipment. 


    How Zero Day Attacks and Exploits are Found Now...

     Using AI protection can detect the intrusion block, the attacker, and alert system administrators of the attempted breach that enable the responders to freeze and rewind time isolating the packet capture from the earliest moments of the attack.

     two-way sharing with the dynamic threat intelligence cloud enables to analyze of the attack.


     The zero day discovery team reverse engineers the incident to break down the intricacies of the exploit using threat intelligence gathered by AI devices and drawing upon years of in-depth knowledge and specialized techniques it will find the key exploit and determine if this particular combination of tactics is a zero day.

     if a zero-day is discovered they notify the vendor of the vulnerable software and works with them to create a Zero day Exploit patch.



    All about hacking and cyber security I present ways of hacking over all platforms also trending news & info bugbounty tutorial for penetration testers

     Today we're gonna find out what is a social engineer. So let's get right into it,  So what is social engineering? And How Pro Social Engineers do that.

    Who are Social Engineers and what is social engineering attack

    A Social engineer is someone who persuades another person to either disclose confidential information or perhaps provide access to restricted areas, such as a company server room by pretending to be someone they're not. And this act called Social engineering.

    This is how social engineering defines or social engineering Definition.

    How Social Engineering Done by Pro Social Engineers

      Well, a social engineer might pretend to be from a maintenance company, or here to deliver a package, or they may pretend to be the CEO's new assistant, so they're pretending to be someone who would normally have access to the information or locations that they're looking for. 

      There are many different ways to conduct different types of social engineering. Let's imagine an attacker who wants to gain physical access to a server that's located in a corporate office building, the attacker might pretend to be from the company's internet provider, and tell the receptionist at the front desk that they need access to the server room to replace the modem. 

      They could also pose as the maintenance manager of an office and request access to a restricted area under the disguise that something like the heating or cooling system needs to be repaired. But social engineering doesn't always have to be in person. 

      Sometimes social engineers will call employees pretending to be from the help desk and request remote access, or call someone pretending to be a bank employee asking for account information. 

      But probably the most common type of social engineering that we see is email phishing or sending an email pretending to be from a trusted source.

       You can see examples of social engineering  For instance, in the popular television show, Mr. Robot in season one, Episode Five the main character Elliott uses social engineering tactics to gain unauthorized access to the steal backup facility.

      • Social engineering attacks rely on which of the following?

       Let's look at a few reasons why social engineering works as well as it does

      • Trusting to anyone

       The first reason is simple. We as humans tend to have a trusting nature. We don't want to believe that everyone is out to harm us. If someone calls or approaches us claiming that they want to help, our instinct is to take them at face value. This doesn't always mean we will fall for these tricks. But when paired with other tactics on this list, it certainly makes social engineering more effective. 

      • Urgency

       we have urgency. humans tend to throw caution to the wind when faced with urgency. This is probably the number one reason why phishing campaigns from so-called executives are effective. When a high-level executive in the company tells you they need something done immediately. You tend to just do it. And this is because you don't want to let them down. Even if the request seems odd.

       I can't tell you how many times in my career, I've seen financial teams set up wire transfers, because the CFO told them to do it immediately, only to later find out it wasn't the CFO at all.

      • Fear

       Along with urgency comes fear. When you're afraid of failing someone important or losing your data, you may not think your actions all the way through fear affects our mind in an interesting way, and we're more likely to make a mistake.  

      fear of having the company find out that they got a virus to impair judgment, embarrassed and feared being reprimanded for it. This lowered people's judgment and in the end, they ended up allowing themself and the company's computer to become a victim to a social engineering attack. 

      • Ignorance

      Finally, and in my opinion, the most obvious reason is simply ignorance. A lack of understanding is the most dangerous thing. Perhaps you aren't someone who would fall for a scam. But what about your elderly grandparents? If someone who isn't extremely familiar with how the technology works, or familiar with these types of scams receives a call like this, they might not even think twice before doing whatever they're asked. 

      Now that we've discussed the human elements that make social engineering so successful, let's look at some of the factors that leave companies vulnerable to social engineering attacks.

      •  lacked security policies

       First up, we have lacked security policies, or in some cases, no security policies at all. There should always be some policy in place that makes users aware of what information they're allowed to share via email or over the phone. If there's a policy in place that states that the help desk will never ask for your password via phone or email, then the end-user might think twice when they get this request from a social engineer.

      • Poor permission regulation

       Another factor is poor permission regulation. The more information a user has access to the more information that the company risks losing if that user is a target of a breach. Not all users in the company should have access to sensitive data. It's best to practice the concept of least privilege and only have access to a resource to those users who will absolutely need it.

      • Minimal to no security Awareness Training.

       Last but certainly not least, minimal to no security awareness training. How can a company get upset with their employees for clicking on a phishing email when they've never been told what one looks like? We discussed that ignorance and a lack of understanding is a huge reason why show social engineering attacks are so successful.

       If companies are able to roll out a successful security awareness training program, their employees are much more likely to spot a scam before those who have never attended a security training at all. security awareness training can vary from company to company, but it's usually a combination of online learning modules and phishing tests in which a company will send phishing emails on purpose to gauge their employee's awareness. 

      • Social Engineering Phases

       I should point out that not all social engineering attacks will go through all of these phases. Sometimes social engineering attacks aren't targeted. They just send a bunch of phishing emails to a lot of people. But this article is going to cover the phases of a targeted and focused social engineering attack.

       There are four main phases of targeted social engineering attacks. So we'll look at each one of them.

      • Recon and Information Gathering

      So the first thing that an attacker will need to do when carrying out a social engineering attack is to research their target company. This is just like the first step of the cyber kill Chain you need to do your recon. The more information that you have about the company, the better prepared, you'll be to fool them into giving you the information that you need. There are many different ways to do recon on a target company.

       The first and easiest way is to look through the company's website. The website will provide an overview of the company and if they have any blogs, they might have posted about recent events, promotions, or things of that nature. And this can all be really helpful information to a social engineer. by searching for the company's name online, you might be able to find them mentioned on local news sites or in press releases.

       Sometimes when companies have large events or a new CEO or president is starting it ends up in the media. Employment websites and job postings can also be a treasure trove of information to a social engineer. organizations may not always send out emails to the entire staff when a new hire is starting.

       So a social engineer could potentially go into a company pretending to be a new employee there, and the company's receptionist might be none the wiser and let them right in through the front door.

       like dumpster diving, Dumpster diving is exactly what it sounds like. Organizations there are a lot of documents away and if there isn't a shredding policy in place, you'd be surprised at the type of information you can find just due to what people will carelessly throw away. 

      • Choosing an employee at the target organization

      Once the research aspect is complete, the social engineer will choose an employee to target specifically, while it is possible to simply target the entire organization and send out emails to the full mailing list. Any experienced social engineer knows that they'll be much more successful if they choose one or two people to target.

       When it comes to cybersecurity humans are always the weakest link. Sometimes targeting a new employee of the company can be helpful. They may not know every single person in the company so it might not faze them when they don't recognize your name or face.

       Another target could be a disgruntled employee, they are already at the end of the road with their company and they just simply don't care what happens. careless employees are social engineer's best friend. These types of employees are not going to do extra work to follow protocol, they will always choose the easiest solution. 

      Whenever possible, social engineers will choose a target that either has access to what they want or has direct access to someone who does. Social engineers don't want to try to go through 10 people to get to their goal, the least amount of people they have to trick the easier their job is.

      • Gaining the trust of that person

      Once the social engineer has chosen an employee to target the next step is to gain the trust of that person and build a relationship with them. social engineering really depends on the victim trusting the social engineer completely. If there is a hint of doubt, the attack might not be successful.

       In order to gain the trust of the employee, the social engineer might provide fake credentials. Through research done in phase one, they might have been able to see what an employee badge looks like and forge a recreation of one themselves.

       knowing a lot about the company and recent events or functions helps to clear any doubt that the target might have about whether or not the social engineer can be trusted. This is why it's really important for social engineers to do extremely thorough research on the organization as a whole.

       Before beginning their attack, the more that the social engineer knows the higher likelihood of them succeeding in gaining people's trust. Finally, social engineers will always have to be confident. When people sound like they know what they're talking about. Others tend to believe them. 

      Even if it goes against their better judgment. The moment a social engineer starts to sound unsure of themselves, the trust they built will be completely shattered. Once the social engineer builds trust or a relationship with the target employee,

      • Exploit the weakest link

        This is the final step for the social engineer as this is when they are going to try and gain access to what they were looking for. One thing a social engineer could be looking to gain is access to a particular restricted area. They could exploit their target by telling them that they normally have access there but they left their keys at home. If the target trusts the social engineer enough, they might help them out.

      Some Social Engineering Attack Example

      Another scenario is someone posing as an employee who just started the company. Perhaps they're trying to access a door With a key code, they could pretend they forgot the passcode since their first day and the target might actually be willing to give it to them.

       Perhaps the social engineer's goal is to get a piece of malware installed on the network, they could tell the target they are trying to get a file off of the USB drive to open but it's not showing up when they plug it in, they'll ask the target to plug it into their machine and see if they can open it. However, when the trusting target clicks on the file from the USB, they are unknowingly infected with malware.

       Another scenario could be that the social engineers' one and only goal is to simply gather Intel that isn't publicly available. It could be a case of corporate espionage, the social engineer could be trying to steal intellectual property or trade secrets. If they befriend the right target in the organization, that person might tell them all about how the company is run and how the products are, and how the products are produced.

       Just a quick recap, the four phases of social engineering that we discussed in this Article are phase one researching your target organization. Phase Two, choosing an employee at the target organization, phase three, gaining the trust of that employee, and phase four exploiting that employee's trust.

      • Social Engineering Techniques

       social engineering techniques, there are tons of techniques that social engineers use, and we're going to cover a lot of them in this article. So in order to make things a little bit easier, I've broken them up into different categories, social engineering attacks that occur in person, social engineering attacks that occur via computer, and finally social engineering attacks that occur over the phone.

      Top Social Engineering Techniques

      • In-person social engineering

       Let's begin with in-person social engineering. When I talk about in-person social engineering attacks, I'm referring to any attack that isn't done over the phone or using a computer. This type of social engineering can't be done by an attacker who is sitting in their home, they have to go out and actively attempt their techniques on a person. Here are some techniques I consider to be in-person social engineering, eavesdropping, shoulder surfing, dumpster diving, tailgating, piggybacking, and finally impersonation.

      • Eavesdropping

       Eavesdropping is a social engineering technique in which the attacker will attempt to listen in on private conversations to gain information.

       An example of eavesdropping would be listening in while a helpdesk technician reads off a password to a user that had forgotten it.

       Well, Eavesdropping can be as simple as being in the right place at the right time to listen to a conversation. Some attackers will take it one step further by creating their own listening devices. 

      • Shoulder Surfing

      Shoulder Surfing is similar to eavesdropping, but instead of gathering information with their ears, attackers try to gather information with their eyes.

      Shoulder Surfing is the act of spying on an unknowing user while they're entering private information

      One example of shoulder surfing would be an attacker watching a user type their username and password into their computer. While Another example would be watching a person type in their pin number into a banking system or ATM.

      • Dumpster Diving

       Dumpster diving is a social engineering technique in which the attacker will find personal information about an individual or organization in their trash. 

      People are often careless in terms of what they throw away and even junk mail could be potentially useful to an attacker.

       Imagine an office worker who throws away an old list of user phone numbers because they received an updated list. Although the list they threw away might not be entirely accurate anymore, it's found has some phone numbers that are still relevant. If a social engineer finds us in the trash, they now have a semi-complete list of users and their phone numbers. This can be very useful to a social engineer.

      • Piggybacking

       When you hear the word piggyback, you might think of someone riding on another person's back. However, in terms of cybersecurity piggybacking means something else.

       piggybacking is a social engineering technique in which the social engineer has tricked their target into allowing them to use or piggyback so to use or speak onto their credentials.

       In this example

      imagine a social engineer trying to gain access to a locked building. When a person comes over Along with a valid badge that grants them access to the building. The social engineer might say something along the lines of 

      ' I forgot my badge. Do you mind letting me in ' 

      and they're speaking to the good nature and people and a lot of folks will help them out.

      • Tailgating

       tailgating is somewhat similar to piggybacking, so it's easy to confuse the two. But in a tailgating situation, the social engineer follows after the target without speaking to them

      Let's imagine a scenario in which a social engineer is carrying a large box. There may or may not be anything in the box, but to everyone else, it looks like they have their hands full. In order to be polite, the target may hold the door open for them. Or perhaps they don't even hold the door open for them, but they're probably not going to pay any mind if the social engineer sticks his foot out and keeps it open.

       The main difference between piggybacking and tailgating is that in piggybacking, the social engineer has the person's consent to follow them in or use their credentials. In a tailgating scenario, the user did not give the social engineer explicit consent to enter the building.

       If it's hard to remember, just think of it this way. When more than one person tailgates a car, it's done without consent. When a person gives another person a piggyback ride, though, it's something that's typically agreed on by both parties. 

      • Impersonation

      And the last in-person social engineering technique that I'm going to cover also happens to be the most common in-person social engineering attack.

       Impersonation is exactly what it sounds like the social engineer is pretending to be someone they are not in order to gain access to something they should not have access to.

       The person may pretend to be from the company's telecommunication provider requesting access to the server room, or the social engineer might pretend to be a potential client asking for a tour of the facility.

       Either way, impersonation is a very popular and very effective technique used by social engineers. And impersonation isn't technically just an in-person technique. impersonation is used in all of the categories it's used in person. over the phone on the computer by email, impersonation is really the bread and butter of social engineers. 

      • Phone and Mobile Social Engineering

      So that brings us into our next category, which is phone and mobile. These are attacks that are done either with a landline or through a cell phone. This category includes things like vishing, and smishing.

      • Vishing

       Vishing stands for voice phishing, and it's the process of trying to trick a user into disclosing personal information over the phone.

       You hear this all the time on the news channels regularly talk about individuals who have received a phone call from people claiming to be with the IRS. Those people end up sharing all their information. And next thing you know, they have their identity stolen or elderly people who receive a phone call saying that their grandson is in jail and they have to send bond money.

       These are all examples of vishing attacks. vishing attacks occur when a social engineer calls a user and pretends to be someone else in order to steal their private information or to steal their money. 

      • Smishing

      Smishing, on the other hand, is very similar except that it occurs using text messages. Have you ever received a text message that you just didn't think was legitimate?

       I once received a text message asking me to log into my Amazon account using a link in the text message to check the status of an order. Lucky for me, I was able to spot the fake message right away. I knew I didn't have any packages coming from Amazon at the time. And even if I had I probably would have checked it by logging into my account from the computer and not using that text message link. 

      But let's say for the sake of examples that I did click on that link in the text message. Most likely it would have taken me to a site that looked like Amazon was actually a fake created by the attacker. After I enter my login credentials, I might be redirected to Amazon but it would be too late. The attacker would already have my username and password. This is an example of SMS phishing, also known as smishing.

      • Computer-based social engineering attacks

      And the last category of social engineering attacks that we're going to talk about in this Article, are computer-based social engineering attacks. Obviously, computer-based social engineering attacks are going to be any of those social engineering attacks that initiate from a computer.

       So this includes things such as pop-up messages, spam, spamming, and phishing. Pop Up messages from the web browser are a really easy and common way for social engineers to trick users into calling them and giving them personal information.

       I honestly cannot tell you the number of times in my career, I have received a frantic call from an end-user panicking because they believe they've gotten infected with malware. I'll log into their computer remotely to see a giant frightening message plastered across the web browser, you have a virus, it will say the exact wording of the pop up might vary every time but the core of it stays the same. 

      This computer has been infected with malware, and the only way to resolve it is to call this number. Now 99.9% of the time messages like this are not actual viruses. Instead, when a user accidentally navigates to the wrong URL or allowed to get notifications from an untrusted source, they get that scary popup.

       The purpose isn't to infect the user with malware at all. It's to get the user scared enough to call the number listed. Once the user calls the number, then the attacker on the other end works to take advantage of them.

       However, in every case that I've personally seen a pop-up like that, go into the task manager and ending the task fixes it immediately or disable the notification in the browser that causing that popups can work also. But it's not always meant to be frightening. 

      Sometimes users will receive a message saying they won something like an iPad. And they'll have to call a number email or click something that fits into the pop-up social engineering category as well

      as instant messaging scams are messages that are received through some type of instant messaging platform. This could be Gmail, chat service, Skype, or even Facebook Messenger.

       Have you ever received one of those Facebook messages from a friend that says "hey man, I saw this video of you, I can't believe this is you" with a link video from some weird source If you don't click on it, you may find out later that your friend's account was compromised and started out sending out all these spam messages.

       If you do click on it, well, then you might be the one sending out spam next. This is also considered a type of social engineering attack. So it's always best that if something looks suspicious, just don't click on it, and maybe call that friend and double-check with them actually meant to send that to you.

      • Phishing

       And that brings us to our final type of social engineering attack that we're going to talk about, and that is phishing. And I know that you all already know what phishing is. 

      It's the act of sending emails that appear to come from a trusted source in order to convince a user to disclose information. 

      Phishing is becoming such a huge problem in our world today, it seems like every single day, thousands of getting sent phishing emails. 

      So I will Cover How to do Phishing Attacks and Prevention in another Article.

      All about hacking and cyber security I present ways of hacking over all platforms also trending news & info bugbounty tutorial for penetration testers


      Best Programming Languages To Learn For Hacking

      Before I get into this article, it's very important to recognize that hacking can be dangerous. Don't do it unless you know what you're doing. And you know that what you're doing is legal. Whenever practicing hacking, it should be done responsibly and ethically, or else you could end up in prison, or worse financial turmoil, then you'd be in debt. Like the government. 

      There are three fundamental types of hackers white hat, black hat, and grey hat. 

      A white-hat hacker is somebody who hacks ethically and responsibly and they use their skills to help catch other hackers. They're also often hired by companies to handle security measures, and build anti-hacking software, which is really important and vital work in the world of information technology, especially now that everything is becoming attached to the Internet of Things. 

      Then, of course, we have the Black Hat Hackers, people who use their skills for malicious intent things like creating viruses using keyloggers to steal your information, hacking banks, and even hacking servers, their goal is to break in steal information, and sell it for money. 

      Really, nobody likes those guys, because they negatively affect everyone for the benefit of themselves. 

      Last but not least, we have the grey hat hackers, people who find themselves somewhere in between. These are usually people that don't have malicious intent. But everything they do is usually self beneficial. 

      In general, they auction their abilities to the highest bidder, a gray hat hacker will often look for backdoors and security problems with the system, and then they'll sell the solution to the company for the price. 

      Before I can really talk about what language is the best for hacking, you first have to understand that there are different types of hacking, the language, and system you use for a server is not necessarily the same that you'd use for a personal computer before you look for any absolutes is what you should or shouldn't be using, you should recognize that there are many different types of hacking because there are many different types of computer systems. 

      Because of this, there are many different languages you could utilize to hack any individual system. There's really two different levels of hacking, high-level hacking, and low-level hacking. 

      on the high end of the spectrum, we have the easier to use languages often interpreted or intermediate, Python, Ruby, JavaScript, Java, C#. Because these languages aren't compiled, they're much easier to work with. 

      Because everything is compiled on the fly. a language like Java is both interpreted and compiled. This allows it to be incredibly easy to work with. That's why a lot of hackers prefer it, not to mention most of the world servers run on it. 

      However, Java is really only useful if you're hacking servers and people's back-end computer systems. Let's say you want to hack a robot, or an electronic device, maybe even a car, the only way to do that is with a lower-level language. 

      On the lower end of the spectrum, we have compiled languages like C and c++. And although they're not as easy to use, they are more powerful.

      There's very little you can't do with C or c++.

      what I wanted to show you were a hierarchical ladder, from the hardware all the way up to the highest level of abstractions. Here we have the CPU or the hardware itself, which obviously runs on electricity and hardware components using electricity since zero and five volts signals to determine what to do internally. 

      The 0 in machine language or binary represents false which is nothing in the one represents true or five volts on top of binary and just a little bit abstracted from it is assembly it's really the lowest level human-readable writable language assembly or assembler is a platform-specific language designed for a certain architecture. 

      So Mac and Windows may not necessarily have the same assembler because their architecture usually differs. 

      But we're not going to get into the different types of assembly and assemblers because that's really beyond the scope of this Article. 

      From here we go up to what is likely the lowest level language still in common use today. And that C, C is really close to the hardware for practical language. 

      But it doesn't offer many abstractions that people often desire today, such as object-orientation. Because it doesn't offer many of these modern features, the language is more streamlined. 

      And one might even argue easier to grasp at first, mostly because it has less bloat. It's strange because C is really easier to learn than most languages in some respects, but it's harder to master. 

      And there's sometimes more to know about it, especially because the systems we control with it are generally a lot more complex. However, these days there's not really a lot of languages other than C that retain that low-level ability to program micro-controllers and things of the sort. 

      C is a procedural language, and it was really the first language I ever learned. I'm glad I started with C though and if you have a good mind, plus, enjoy reading and studying things for yourself, then I do highly suggest starting there. 

      There's really no language on a computer that comes even close to being as supported on as many devices as C and its use is still just as relevant today as it was years ago when I was first introduced. 

      It's wild to think how much hardware has changed in that time. But language is really really haven't evolved much at all C is still the world's fastest compiling language supported on multiple systems due to that really low overhead, 



      then we shift a little from here to c++, which is basically c but with object-orientation added to it. And a ton of features. 

      Nobody really uses c++ is a wonderful language. But many people who use it especially for lower-level microcontroller engineering, or game hacking will tell you a lot of the features it has come with cons that kind of outweigh the benefits.

      C++ is great if you need low-level control, and also that object orientation and extra abstractions. But if you're just looking for something that compiles fast, and has the smallest package possible, you're definitely looking for See, it's funny because the design of a virus or hacking actually has many of the same requirements as traditional programming and development. 

      So ordinarily, packaging something really small means quicker delivery to a customer. Well, when you're designing a virus, you take the same exact things into consideration, you want something that's really small and fast and easy to pass over packets over the internet. 


      Then we get to the intermediate hybrid languages, which are compiled, but they've also interpreted languages like C sharp, and Java. And we get Apple's new wonderful, high-level protocol-oriented language Swift. 

      And of course, this list wouldn't be complete without the high-level abstracted languages that basically everybody is learning and using right now for almost everything. 

      These are designed for ease of use, but at the expense of control, like JavaScript, Python, Ruby, and so on. Don't get me wrong, these are still very powerful, real programming languages that can do some serious business. 

      They're just not designed for low-level micro-controller engineering and programming. 

      At the very top here we have HTML and CSS, which contrary to what many people will tell you are absolutely programming languages, they may not use logic to the same extent as a lower-level programming language. But effectively, they're designed for ease of use on the web. 

      And they do meet every criteria to be considered a programming language, which is really just a set of instructions telling the computer what to do. 

      In short, don't be a fool. Every language has its use, I just think C has the most uses. Some people obsess over what language to use for hacking. 

      And although it is important, the operating system is just as important. Most hackers use Linux for good reason. Linux is highly modular and portable by nature. And it supports a vast array of tools for hackers. 

      That probably helps if you're not yet familiar with the Linux operating system, that might be a good place to start before you get into programming. The biggest part of being a hacker isn't even knowing a programming language. 

      But it's simply understanding how the systems work underneath the scenes, once you understand how things work below, you can break in from above, being a hacker is all about trial and error. 

      Sometimes you have to try many things until you get something that works. And often you never do. But this process of trial and error is precisely why so many people love it. It's an incredibly rewarding experience. When you break code that somebody else has made. In many ways, it's competitive like a sport. 

      Many people would think that hacking isn't that useful. But the truth is, it's fundamentally necessary to the electronic environment. If we didn't have white hat hackers, and even gray hat hackers, we wouldn't have the ability to defend ourselves against the black hat hackers. 

      It's extremely important that every time you're on your phone and you take a selfie or picture, it's safeguarded. And only you can see it. Oh, yeah. Yeah, right there. Yeah, just like that. This is only possible because of the talent and amazing skills of ethical hackers. 

      It's of my opinion that if you're new to programming, C is probably the best place to start. Not only is C cross-platform and used on almost every system in the world, but it's also the foundation of almost every programming language today, whether you go on to learn c++, swift, or Java, almost every modern language in the world is heavily influenced by C. 

      Even JavaScript, which is now the most used and popular language in the world takes a huge amount of influence from C. That's why we refer to most languages as C style languages. C teaches you the foundations that you need to do whatever it is that you want to do. Hacking included. 

      Most servers and systems today are designed on software that's written in modern languages, such as Java, and C sharp, but most of the microcontrollers and hardware running those systems and software are designed on C. 

      So if you really want to get low and close to the hardware, C is the best place to be. Even if your goal is to be a general-purpose programmer. Learning C can look incredibly good on your resume, I highly suggest checking c out. 

      And if it's not for you to try a different language, something higher level, we live in an age where the security of your information is more important than ever. As the world around us becomes more and more digitized. 

      It's more important than ever to safeguard our information and identity. When we see hacks like the Equifax hack that have been recent, we know just how dangerous hackers can be from birth certificates to banking information and even your social security number. Black hat hackers are a reality of life. You cannot escape it. 

      Where there is information. There are people trying to steal it. So the only way to control it is to fight fire with fire and find hackers that are willing to do it for ethical purposes. It's because of the hard work of ethical hackers that security measures are even possible to summarize, learn C. And if you can't learn Python or JavaScript,

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